اخلاق دینی و واقع‌گرایی اخلاقی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد مؤسسه آموزشی و پژوهشی امام خمینی (ره)

چکیده

هدف این مقاله بررسی ارتباط بین شکل‌های مختلف واقع‌گرایی اخلاقی و برخی دیدگاه‌ها دربارۀ اخلاق دینی و به‌ویژه اخلاق دینی در سنت اسلامی است، هرچند بیشتر گفته‌ها در سنت‌های دینی دیگر نیز کاربردی خواهد بود. نخست، مرور تاریخی مختصری از ظهور واقع‌گرایی اخلاقی در قرن بیستم بیان می‌شود؛ دوم، انواع اصلی واقع‌گرایی اخلاقی را از هم تفکیک خواهیم کرد؛ سوم، نشان خواهیم داد که در مورد هر یک از انواع اصلی واقع‌گرایی اخلاقی، از واقع‌گرایی‌اخلاقی ‌اکید گرفته تا واقع‌گرایی‌اخلاقی حداقلی، دیدگاه‌های دینی‌ای را نسبت به اخلاق می‌توان صورت‌بندی کرد که هم با واقع‌گرایی سازگار باشند و هم با ردّ آن. ولی، در هر حال، اخلاق‌شناس دینی باید برای پذیرفتن واقع‌گرایی یا ردّ آن هزینه‌ای بپردازد. در نهایت استدلال می‌شود موضعی که فیلسوفان برجستۀ مسلمان در سنت سینوی تا ملاصدرا اتخاذ کرده‌اند موضعی است که در شماری از نقاط مهمش با موضع ضدواقع‌گرایی توافق دارد.    

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Religious Ethics and Moral Realism

نویسنده [English]

  • Hajj Muhammad Legenhausen
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relations between various forms of moral realism and some views about religious ethics, particularly, religious ethics in the Islamic tradition, although much of what is said will apply to ethical views in other religious traditions, as well. First, there is a brief historical review of the rise of moral realism in the twentieth century. Second, the major types of moral realism are distinguished. Third, it is argued that for each of the major types of moral realism, from robust moral realism to minimalist moral realism, religious views of ethics can be formulated that are compatible with both realism and its denial. In each case, however, the religious ethicist must pay a price for taking on realism or its denial. Finally, it is argued that the position taken by major Muslim philosophers in the tradition of Ibn Sina through Mulla Sadra is one that concurs with the non-realist position on a number of significant points.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ash‘arite
  • ethical theory
  • Islamic ethics
  • moral epistemology
  • Moral realism
  • robust realism
  • moral constructivism
  • Mu‘tazilite
  • Peripatetic
  • religious ethics
  • Shi‘ite metaethics
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