عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The study of atheism as a matter of knowledge in the 21st century has attracted the attention of many thinkers. Motahari and Pasquini are among those who have studied the causes and non-philosophical reasons of atheism and believe that atheism is against the human nature although it has a profound connection with how the image of God is, and that any lack of cognition or impeding the formation of proper knowledge can lead one to atheism. Motahari believes that the inadequacy of religious and ecclesiastical concepts impedes the formation of a correct understanding of God and ultimately a reversion to theism in the Western world, where the inaccurate political and social functioning of the church as a religious authority is also a sufficient of atheism and secularism in Western societies. Pasquini also believes that one's emotional and psychological failures in childhood and adolescence lead to a failure in the process of knowing and understanding God. Therefore, he uses the psychological theory of Professor Vitz "dysfunctional father" to illustrate the non-philosophical causes of atheism in individuals, and in particular in the leaders of the new atheism and intellectuals and thinkers and philosophers.