عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The issue of virtue and evil of actions has been one of the most important and sect-creating issues in the history of scholastic and ethical thoughts. The numerous topics such as semantic description of virtue & evil of actions, ontological description of virtue & evil of actions and epistemological description of virtue & evil of actions have been discussed in the scholastic, philosophic and jurisprudence books of Muslim thinkers. Ash'arites as the most ardent deniers of the essential and rational virtue & evil of actions; and Adliyyah Sect as the most famous apologist for the essential and rational virtue & evil of actions have adduced reasons as proof for their claims and have rejected the opposite party's. Amidst all these discussions, due to the lack of separation of "semantics" of virtue & evil of actions from "criteriology" of virtue & evil of actions on the one hand, and also the lack of enough attention to distinguish between the ontological and epistemological debates in this regard at the other hand, have raised lots of confusions and misunderstandings. This paper tries not only to complete the way that scholars such as Abdul Razzaq Fayadh Lahiji and Mullah Hadi Sabziwari has paced to distinguish between the «intrinsic/divine values» and «intellectual/religious values» but also to analyze the other distinctions such as the ones between the «final/instrumental values» and «intrinsic/extrinsic values» because neglecting them has brought about some fallacies in this field of study.
 . Ash'ari Theology (al-Ashā`irah) is a school of early Muslim speculative theology founded by the theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324 AH / 936 AD).